Pluto Bioinformatics

GSE149815: SHP2 Inhibition Abrogates Adaptive Resistance to KRAS-G12C-Inhibition and Remodels the Tumor Microenvironment of KRAS-Mutant Tumors

Bulk RNA sequencing

KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer, and KRAS inhibition has been a longtime goal. Recently, inhibitors (G12C-Is) that bind KRAS-G12C-GDP and react with Cys-12 were developed. Using new affinity reagents to monitor KRAS-G12C activation and inhibitor engagement, we found that SHP2 inhibitors (SHP2-Is) increased KRAS-GDP occupancy, enhancing G12C-I efficacy. SHP2-Is abrogated feedback signaling by multiple RTKs and adaptive resistance to G12C-Is in vitro, in xenografts, and in syngeneic KRAS-G12C-mutant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models. The combination of SHP2-I and G12C-I evoked favorable changes in the immune microenvironment, decreasing myeloid suppressor cells, increasing CD8+ T cells, and sensitizing tumors to PD-1 blockade. Experiments using an inhibitor-resistant SHP2 mutant showed that SHP2 inhibition in PDAC cells is required for tumor regression and remodeling of the immune microenvironment, but SHP2-Is also had direct effects on angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that SHP2-I/G12C-I combinations confer a substantial survival benefit in PDAC and NSCLC and identify additional potential combination strategies. G12C-Is show significant, but limited, efficacy as single agents, in part because of adaptive resistance. We find that combining G12C-Is with SHP2-Is abrogates adaptive resistance and results in favorable changes in the immune microenvironment that potentiate PD-1 blockade in KRAS-mutant malignancies. SHP2-Is also can have direct, context-dependent, effects on tumor vasculature. SOURCE: Igor Dolgalev NYU Langone Health

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